Today’s article has been written exclusively for The Elizabeth Files by novelist Jeane Westin, writer of “The Virgin’s Daughters: In the Court of Elizabeth I”. Thank you so much, Jeane, for giving us this insight into the relationship between Elizabeth and her “Robin”.
Did they or didn’t they? Elizabeth I and Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester.
Bess and her Robin’s love story is a tangled puzzle, one which I’ve attempted to unravel in years of research and two novels. In the first, The Virgin’s Daughters:In the court of Elizabeth I, NAL, August, 2009, I’ve viewed their lives through the eyes of two of Elizabeth’s ladies-of-the-bedchamber. In the novel I’m currently writing, His Last Letter: Elizabeth I and the Earl of Leicester, NAL, August 2010, I write from their viewpoints, getting inside their hearts.
Robin’s last letter to Elizabeth survives. He says her medicine has made him feel better and he kisses her foot. But is that all? Was there another page to the letter that Elizabeth could not allow to survive? Did she carry a romantic secret to her grave, a secret that answers one of the continuing puzzles of her life?
Elizabeth, the iconic Virgin Queen, Gloriana, Good Queen Bess, Diana the Huntress and all the other grand titles she was known by, was obviously and forever in love with Robert Dudley, her Sweet Robin. For thirty years she could not allow him to leave her side without great pain, their love outlasting her endless flirtations with other courtiers and on-going marriage negotiations with most of the foreign princes of Europe.
Yet, Robert was so unpopular with many jealous courtiers and much of the English population that for several centuries after his death he was treated by historians as a greedy, not too bright failure with little to recommend him but his looks and ability to dance the galliard. In his lifetime many believed he murdered his first wife, Amy Robsart He was also suspected of poisoning every man who opposed him and who died suddenly.
We know better today. Although I believe that Elizabeth might have married him in the beginning of her reign, Amy’s suspicious death made that forever impossible. Did he kill his wife? No, I don’t believe so. Dudley was no fool. If there was one thing that would put the queen forever beyond his reach, it was a murder…a murder in which she, too, would obviously be implicated.
Amy had advanced breast cancer when she fell down two short flights of stairs at Cumnor Manor in 1560 and broke her neck. Modern medicine tells us that cancer can cause brittle bones. It would take a very short fall by a woman in great pain to break a fragile neck. She could also have committed suicide, but the possibility of that was immediately hushed because it meant that she could not be buried in consecrated ground. Two juries judged Amy’s death was caused by “misadventure,” in modern meaning an accident, but many Englishmen never accepted that judgment.
Any number of theories about Amy’s death have come down to us. I even found an accusation against William Cecil, Elizabeth’s Secretary of State. Could he have had Amy killed in order to implicate Dudley, since Cecil feared Elizabeth would marry him instead of a foreign prince? I’ll leave that one to the conspiracy theorists.
As for Robert Dudley, his love for Elizabeth survived his two marriages and many affairs, remaining the one constant and supremely important love of his life.
There are numerous guesses about why Elizabeth never married. Marriage put a wife in Tudor times under her husband’s total control. Her father’s marriages taught her well. Besides, Elizabeth liked to rule. Perhaps she was afraid of childbirth, which killed many women. Most of all, she liked to play the marriage game keeping half of Europe guessing and her country free from attacks while there was a possibility of acquiring England without bloodshed or expense.
The first question asked of any writer of Elizabeth and Dudley: Did they have a consumated love affair or was she truly a virgin? One answer could be that the the definition of virgin has changed over the centuries. In Tudor times it meant a “maid,” in other words an unmarried woman. Another answer: Elizabeth willed herself to be a virgin and that was that! No one will ever know for sure, which is a good thing for writers who want to weave a tale.
Cecil, himself, thought they were lovers as late as 1572 or 14 years after Elizabeth ascended the throne. In the early years of her reign, it was remarked in letters by ambassadors and other unofficial communications that they were very physical…she, touching him (she tickled his neck when he knelt to be made a garter knight) and he, having access to her chamber whenever he liked. When they were young, they had adjoining chambers.
If you have read much of this queen’s reign, you know that she was shrewd and a good judge of men. Would she have kept Dudley so close if he were an idiot? She put him on her council. She twice named him head of her armies and even contemplated naming him Captain-General of England, which would have put him second in command of the realm. Cecil talked her out of it.
Early in her reign when she thought she was dying of smallpox, she named Dudley Protector and demanded that her council give him twenty thousand pounds a year (an unheard of sum). England was her most precious possession; she refused to ever name an heir in her lifetime. Would she have left her realm, her most precious posession to someone she thought unworthy?
One of my greatest pleasures in writing about them is to imagine them in their castles and riding madly through the countryside all those years, always together yet forever apart.
By Jeane Westin
Author of “The Virgin’s Daughters: In the Court of Elizabeth I”.
29 thoughts on “Did They or Didn’t They?”
How reliable would birth control have been back then? Dudley must know something I don’t know and I thought reliable birth control first came around with “the pill.” Hard to believe anyone could connect hysteria with sex! I suppose they never heard of a cold bath or shower LOL! I guess the relationship between Elizabeth and Dudley will remain a mystery.
I guess I’ll have to try and research Tudor contraception now! I’m not sure what they used but Catherine Howard once said “a woman might meddle with a man and yet conceive no child unless she would her-self” and perhaps that would explain how Catherine could have had the sexual experience she had and not get pregnant. But did Elizabeth and Dudley use birth control or was Elizabeth barren or did they actually never go that far? It’s a mystery!
At that time, condoms made of fabrics, or pig’s guts, where available, mostly to avoid venerian diseases like siphylis when having sex with prostitutes, and, as it is nowadays, condoms is the best way to avoid pregnancy.
Lisajane, it may seem unbelievable for us, but doctors were convinced for centuries that women without sexual activity were exposed to hystaria. They believed (don’t laugh at what follows, people like Hippocrate or Gallien wrote it, and even Aristote!!!!) that a woman’s uterus wasn’t fixed in her body. It was supposed to move into the body and to perturb her mind. The only way to fix it and to calm the woman was to give her a husband and regular sexual activity. Longtime virgins were accused of hysteria and seen as annormal and pererted ( have a look to litterature, old maids are always dryed and opposed to the other’s happiness.
Just out of curiosity, were the Vestal Virgins all considered hysterical? I know that a vestal could retire about 30 years old and many of them did not marry to continue Rome’s “good luck.” Still sounds like a guy’s excuse to get laid! I suppose a nunnery was a dangerous place! I don’t think chocolate was around during Henry’s time to appease all those crazed nuns LOL!
In fact, chastity for religious purpose was a different point: a Vestal or a nun wasn’t really a woman, as if the fact of choosing God as a husband took their uterus away from her (lol). The main target of all the hysteria stuff was women who didn’t marry but remained in the “world”, and didn’t take the veil. Yes, it was a chauvinist’s pig view on women, not only to get laid (“Oh, I had to refix her uterus!”), but to laugh at inependant women. for centuries, women who remained unmarried were the most independant of all, not having to submit to a husband. Saying that they were hysterical was a good mean to minimize them. There was a stupid expression too, saying that women without sexuality had “spiderwebs inside”. And you can be frightened by the idea that doctors believed in the “traveling uterus” until the twenthieth century. For the nuns, they dinn’t have chocolate ( such an unbearable time, lol!), but if you read comics short storie of this time, like The Decameron, you’ll see that they had gardeners… And confessors…
Thanks for the info Lexy! So independent women who didn’t marry have been a threat to guys for a long time! It’s amazing the ideas that people had. Part of the reason that I love this site if finding facts not in most history books (or at least the ones I’ve read).
Yes, Lisaanne, single women who hadn’t to submit to any male were seen not only as threats, but as annormal cratures. Just look at all the rumors about the reasons for Elizabeth’ s chastity, like my favourite ( that she hadn’t any “hole” to couple with a man). it was the same thing for many great women in history, just look at the reactions toward first feminists. If you want to have an exemple of the ‘Traveling Theory”, have a look at the very good and well documented The Crimson Petal and the White. During the examination of a depressed woman, the doctor declares that her uterus is not at the right place and that he have to refix it. And for another historical exemple, people said criticizing Marie Antoinette queen of France, that since her wedding had not been immediatly consummed, she had developped “uterine furors”, that made her sleep whith everything ( men, women, dogs, even her children ) and plotting the more deaths she could.
OMG Lexy! That’s a crazy rumor – I suppose they thought Elizabeth didn’t have a period or connected that babies came out of the same place! Poor Elizabeth! Having to rule a country and deal with all these crazy rumors. These doctors amaze me. So how did the doctor treat the depressed woman? Was he treating or molesting her? And poor Marie Antoinette (I keep thinking of a song parody “I Kissed A Dog And I Liked It” – I suppose everyone ran away from her who wasn’t in the mood! Now how come this wasn’t on the show I saw about the French Revolution?
The belief in female hysteria lasted for centuries and the vibrator was actually invented for doctors to use on women to relieve them of their hysteria – just don’t ask!! There’s a great article on wiki about it – see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_hysteria.
You’ve all inspired me to write a page on Tudor Contraception – see https://www.elizabethfiles.com/info/tudor-life/tudor-contraception/. Thanks for all the brilliant comments!